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Drug Testing

Policy development, implementation and managing.  At DDS, we only use the highest forensic quality drug testing.   MORE


Background Check

DDS is a leading provider of background check  solutions. We deliver valuable insights for better decisions and peace of mind. MORE


Criminal and Civil

DDS, Experts in Criminal and Civil Searches. Searches can be done on either the National Level or at the District Level. MORE


I-9 Compliance

DDS is a federally-approved Designated Agent of the Department of Homeland Security and the Social Security Administration.  MORE
 

 


 

Policy development, implementation and managing. At DDS, we only use the highest forensic quality drug testing available through Urinalysis and Hair analysis. The Urinalysis testing meets all federal and state requirements through a NIDA certified lab. All screened positives are automatically confirmed through Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry).
Any positive samples are stored for one year for litigation purposes. Of course expert testimony in any litigation is also available. Each positive is verified by our MRO (Medical Review Officer) who is a medical doctor and an expert in the substance abuse field. We also supply instant drug test kits for various drug panels. 

Because alcohol can also be an abused substance, we provide an instant breath alcohol screening system as well as standardized D.O.T. alcohol testing. 

Employer Tip Sheet
Drug testing is one way you can protect your workplace from the negative effects of alcohol and other drug abuse. A drug testing program can deter people from coming to work unfit for duty and also discourage alcohol and other drug abusers from joining your organization in the first place.
Some employers believe that a drug-free workplace program and drug testing are one and the same; however, drug testing is only one element of a program. Drug testing may be appropriate for some organizations and not others. In some cases drug testing is required; in others, it is optional (see Employer Tip Sheet #1 and #2). When drug testing is optional, the decision about whether or not to test will depend on a variety of factors such as the cost, appropriateness, and feasibility.

What is Drug Testing?
When considering a drug testing program, the first question to ask is, "Am I required to drug test some or all of my employees?" If not, then ask, "Are there other reasons I should consider drug testing?" Below are some of the most frequent reasons employers give for having a drug testing program:

  • To comply with Federal regulations, e.g., the Department of Transportation, Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy
  • To comply with customer or contract requirements
  • To comply with insurance carrier requirements
  • To match other employer efforts, and to minimize the chance of hiring employees who may be users or abusers
  • To reinforce the company position on "no drug use"
  • To identify current users and abusers and refer them for assistance
  • To establish grounds for discipline or firing
  • To improve safety
  • To convince "casual users" that the cost of using is too high
  • To deter "recreational" drug use that could lead to addiction
  • To reduce the costs of alcohol and other drug abuse in the workplace
  • To give recovering users another reason to stay sober (relapse prevention).

Drug testing was a big decision for me, and I had a lot of questions: Is it legal to drug test my employees? How should I go about informing my workers that we’re implementing this new policy and program? How much will it cost? What do I do if an employee tests positive? Do I have to offer treatment? Can we afford to help employees with drug problems? Fortunately, I knew another business owner in my community who had recently started a testing program. I called her for advice, and she was able to give me some resources to get started right; Owner, manufacturing company.


When Should You Drug Test?
Below are examples of situations in which drug testing might be appropriate or necessary:
 
Pre-Employment Tests Offering employment only after a negative drug test result.
Goal: To decrease the chance of hiring someone who is currently using or abusing drugs.

Pre-Promotion Tests. Testing employees prior to promotion within the organization.
Goal: To decrease the chance of promoting someone who is currently using or abusing drugs.

Annual Physical Tests. Testing employees for alcohol and other drug use as part of their annual physical.
Goal: To identify current users and abusers so they can be referred for assistance and/or disciplinary action.

Reasonable Suspicion and For Cause Tests. Testing employees who show obvious signs of being unfit for duty (For Cause) or have documented patterns of unsafe work behavior (Reasonable Suspicion).
Goal: To protect the safety and well-being of the employee and other coworkers and to provide the opportunity for rehabilitation if the employee tests positive.

Random Tests. Testing a selected group of employees at random and unpredictable times. Most commonly used in safety- and security-sensitive positions.
Goal: To discourage use and abuse by making testing unpredictable, and to identify current users and abusers so they can be referred for assistance and/or disciplinary action if needed.

Post-Accident Tests. Testing employees who are involved in an accident or unsafe practice incident to help determine whether alcohol or other drug use was a factor.
Goal: To protect the safety of the employees, and to identify and refer to treatment those persons whose alcohol or other drug use threatens the safety of the workplace. Treatment Follow-up Tests: Periodically testing employees who return to work after participating in an alcohol or other drug rehabilitation program.
Goal: To encourage and ensure that employees remain drug-free after they have completed the first stages of treatment.

How To Implement a Drug Testing Program
An effective drug testing program needs a drug testing policy. This may be part of the organization’s drug-free workplace policy, or it may be a separate document. It should be distributed to all employees. The best protection against future legal challenges is to write a policy that is as detailed and specific as possible.

What Should a Drug Testing Policy Include?
The Drugs You Are Testing For:
Laboratories can test for a wide variety of drugs. Generally, employers test only for those that are most commonly used and abused: cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), opiates, amphetamines, and cannabinoids (marijuana). Some employers also test for alcohol.

Who Will Be Tested and Under What Conditions
While the overall drug-free workplace policy should apply to everyone in an organization, the drug testing policy may apply only to some employees. Therefore, the testing policy should clearly identify the employee positions included in the testing program. The policy should also indicate under what circumstances employees in each position will be tested.
Employers who are required to drug test by one or more Federal agencies should refer to the specific regulations to determine the types of testing that are required (i.e., random, post-accident, etc.). Employers whose employees are members of a union or collective bargaining unit should know that unless drug testing is required by law or regulation, it will likely be a mandatory subject of bargaining.

The Consequences of Testing Positive or Refusing To Take a Test
Before beginning a drug testing program, carefully consider how you will handle a positive drug test result. The actions that will be taken in response to a positive drug test should be clearly detailed in the written policy. Although there are many options, common responses include referring the employee for treatment, disciplinary measures, or discharge. 
Examples: If an applicant tests positive, she or he is usually denied employment. Some employers will allow the applicant to reapply after a period of time (e.g., 3 months). If an employee tests positive as part of a post-accident or reasonable suspicion test, the first response should be to remove that person from his or her position, especially if the job is safety-related.
URINE SPECIMAN 5-PANEL
ANALYTE SCREEN CUTOFF CONFIRMATION CUTOFF
AMPHETAMINES 1000 NG/ML 500 NG/ML
COCAINE METABOLITE 300 NG/ML 150 NG/ML
MARIJUANA METABOLITE 50 NG/ML 15 NG/ML
OPIATES 2000 NG/ML 2000 NG/ML
PHENCYCLIDINE 25 NG/ML 25 NG/ML
ORAL FLUID SPECIMAN 6-PANEL
ANALYTE SCREEN CUTOFF CONFIRMATION CUTOFF
AMPHETAMINES 100 NG/ML 40 NG/ML
METHAMPHETAMINES 40 NG/ML 40 NG/ML
OPIATES 10 NG/ML 10 NG/ML
BENZOYLECGONINE 5 NG/ML 2 NG/ML
PHENCYCLIDINE 1 NG/ML 0.5 NG/ML
MARIJUANA METABOLITE 1 NG/ML 0.5 NG/ML
HAIR SPECIMAN 5-PANEL
ANALYTE SCREEN CUTOFF CONFIRMATION CUTOFF
AMPHETAMINES 300 PG/MG 300 PG/MG
COCAINE 300 PG/MG 300 PG/MG
OPIATES 500 PG/MG 500 PG/MG
PCP 300 PG/MG 300 PG/MG
THC N/A 5 PG/MG
URINE SPECIMAN 10-PANEL
ANALYTE SCREEN CUTOFF CONFIRMATION CUTOFF
AMPHETAMINES 1000 NG/ML 500 NG/ML
COCAINE METABOLITE 300 NG/ML 150 NG/ML
MARIJUANA METABOLITE 50 NG/ML 15 NG/ML
OPIATES 2000 NG/ML 2000 NG/ML
PHENCYCLIDINE 25 NG/ML 25 NG/ML
BARBITURATES 300 NG/ML 200 NG/ML
BENZODIAZEPINES 300 NG/ML 200 NG/ML
METHADONE 300 NG/ML 200 NG/ML
PROPOXYPHENE 300 NG/ML 200 NG/ML
PCP 25 NG/ML 25 NG/ML
Basic 5-Panel Description


AMPHETAMINES:1000 NG/ML 500 NG/ML

Uppers, Speed, Black Beauties, Meth, Whites, Jelly Beans, Dexies, Crank, White Cross, Benny, Crystal

Substances/Time Detectable:

METHAMPHETAMINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

AMPHETAMINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

COCAINE: 300 NG/ML 150 NG/ML

Coke, Nose Candy, Crack, Snow, White Candy, C, Flake, Freebase, Toot, Blow, Rock

Substances/Time Detectable:

BENZOYLECGONINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

MARIJUANA: 50NG/ML 15 NG/ML

Dope, Pot, Reefer, Joint, Smoke, Weed

Substances/Time Detectable:

11-Nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid
Urine: occasional use, 1 to 3 days
Urine: habitual/chronic use, up to 30 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)

9-tetrahydrocannabinol
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: less than 24 hours

OPIATES: 2000 NG/ML 2000 NG/ML

HEROIN: Smack, Horse, Junk, China White
MORPHINE: M, Miss Emma
CODEINE: School Boy
HYDROCODONE: Vicodin
HYDROMORPHONE: Dilaudid
OXYCODONE: Percocet, Percodan, Oxycotin
OXYMORPHONE: Mumorphan

Substances/Time Detectable:

Codeine, Morphine
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, 6-monoacetylmorphine
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

PHENCYCLIDINE: 25 NG/ML 25 NG/ML

Angel Dust, Devil Stick, PCP, Dummy Dust, Wack

Substances/Time Detectable:
Urine: occasional use, 1 to 5 days
Urine: habitual/chronic use, up to 30 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours

AMPHETAMINES:
Uppers, Speed, Black Beauties, Meth, Whites, Jelly Beans, Dexies, Crank, White Cross, Benny, Crystal
 
What to look for:
Tablets of varying colors, possible chain smoking.
 
Physical Symptoms:
Long periods without rest or sleep, loss of appetite anxiety, irritability, rapid speech, tremors, mood elevation
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
METHAMPHETAMINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
AMPHETAMINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Dangers:
Disorientation, severe depression, paranoia, possible hallucinations, increase in blood pressure, fatigue.

COCAINE:
Coke, Nose Candy, Crack, Snow, White Candy, C, Flake, Freebase, Toot, Blow, Rock
 
What to Look For:
Glassine envelopes, razors, small spoons, bitter white crystalline powder, granular rocks
 
Physical Symptoms:
Short-lived euphoria changing to depression, irritability, nervousness, tightness of muscles
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
BENZOYLECGONINE
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Dangers:
Shallow breathing, fever, anxiety, tremors, possible death from convulsions or resiratory arrest.
MARIJUANA:
Dope, Pot, Reefer, Joint, Smoke, Weed
 
What to Look For:
Plastic baggies, rolling paper, "roach" clips, odor of burnt rope
 
Physical Symptoms:
Altered perception, dilated pupils, lack of concentration and coordination, craving for sweets, increased appetite, laughter.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
11-Nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid

Urine: occasional use, 1 to 3 days
Urine: habitual/chronic use, up to 30 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
 
9-tetrahydrocannabinol
 
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: less than 24 hours
 
Dangers:
Psychological dependence, increased heart rate, impaired short-term memory, anxiety, lung damage, possible psychosis with chronic use.
OPIATES:
HEROIN: Smack, Horse, Junk, China White
MORPHINE: M, Miss Emma
CODEINE: School Boy
HYDROCODONE: Vicodin
HYDROMORPHONE: Dilaudid
OXYCODONE: Percocet, Percodan, Oxycotin
OXYMORPHONE: Mumorphan
 
What to Look For:
Glassine envelopes, needles and syringes, caps or spoons, tourniquets, needle marks on arms
 
Physical Symptoms:
Insensitivity to pain, euphoria, sedation, nausea, vomiting, itchiness, watery eyes, running nose.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
Codeine, Morphine
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, 6-monoacetylmorphine
Urine: 1 to 3 days
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Dangers:
Lethargy, weight loss, hepatitis, slow and shallow breathing, possible death
PHENCYCLIDINE:
Angel Dust, Devil Stick, PCP, Dummy Dust, Wack
 
What to Look For:
Liquid capsules, white or brown powder on paper stamps, sugar cubes, cigarettes, joints, injection paraphernalia.
 
Physical Symptoms:
Increased pulse and heart rate, blood pressure and temperature, possible mood and perception alteration, paranoia, panic, anxiety, nausea, tremors, suicidal urge.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
Urine: occasional use, 1 to 5 days
Urine: habitual/chronic use, up to 30 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Dangers:
Unpredictable behavior, flashbacks, possible emotional instability and psychosis, hallucinations.

MDMA:
Ecstasy, Adam, XTC, X, Hug Drug, Beans, Love Drug, Lover’s Speed
 
What to Look For:
White odorless crystalline powder, tablets in various colors and stamped with various patterns
 
Physical Symptoms:
Euphoria, empathetic and unusually warm towards people, touch and sight senses often heightened.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
3-4 methylene dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
3-4 methylene dioxyamphetamine (MDA)
 
Urine: 2 to 4 days
Hair: up to 90 days (depending on hair length)
Oral Fluid: 24 to 36 hours
 
Dangers:
Tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, mydriasis, diaphoresis, stimulant, entactogenic effects, visual hallucinations.

BARBITURATES:
Downers, Dolls, Recs, Tuinal, Rainbows, Yellows, Blues, Goofballs, M & M’s, Red Devils
 
What to Look For:
Capsules of varying colors, longer periods of rest or sleep, dizziness, cold and clammy skin
 
Physical Symptoms:
Depression, decreased alertness and muscle control, intoxication and slurred speech, drowsiness.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Secobarbital, Butalbital, Pentobarbital, Amobarbital, Phenobarbital
 
Urine: all except Phenobarbitol, 1 to 3 days (short acting)
Urine: Phenobarbital, 1 to 3 weeks
 
Dangers:
Rigidity and painful muscle contraction, emotional instability, possible overdose and death, especially when mixed with alcohol.
BENZODIAZEPINES:
Downers, Tranqs
 
What to Look For:
Pills and injection paraphernalia
 
Physical Symptoms:
Slurred speech, disorientation, drunken behavior without odor of alcohol.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
Common Benzodiazepines and/or specific metabolites: Oxazepam, Nordiazepam, Temazepam (Restoril), Flurazepam (Dalmane), Alprazolam (Xanax), Lorazepam (Ativan), Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), Clorazepate (Tranxene), Diazepam (Valium), Halazepam (Paxipam), Medazepam (Nobrium), Prazepam (Centrax), Flunitrazepam, Clonazepam (Klonopin), Midazolam (Versed)
 
Urine: varies from 1 to 14 days
 (depending on specific Benzodiazepine)
 
Dangers:
Shallow respiration, cold and clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, coma, possible death.

METHADONE:
Done, Dolophine, Methadose, Dolls
 
What to Look For:
White crystalline powder, tablets, liquid (injectable)
 
Physical Symptoms:
Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constricted pupils, nausea.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:

Methadone and metabolite
 
Urine: 1 to 3 days
 
Dangers:
Slow and/or shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, possible death.
METHAQUALONE:
Ludes, Sopor, Lemmon, Quaalude, Mequin
 
What to Look For:
Tablets
 
Physical Symptoms:
Slow heart rate and breathing, lowered blood pressure, sleepiness, feelings of well-being, loss of coordination, laziness, impaired perception, confusion, later hangover.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Methaqualone
 
Urine: 1 to 7 days
 
Dangers:
Anxiety, insomnia

PROPOXYPHENE:
What to Look For:
Tablets, capsules
 
Physical Symptoms:
Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, euphoria, sysphoria, asthenia
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Norpropoxyphene
 
Urine: 1 to 3 days
 
Dangers:
Skin rash and other allergic reactions occur occasionally and may be accompanied by drug fever and mucosal lesions, stupor or coma, convulsions, respiratory depression.

GHB:
Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid-X, Everclear, Soap, Easy Lay, Goops, Georgia Home Boy
 
What to Look For:
White, odorless powder, tablet or capsule
 
Physical Symptoms:
Relaxes or sedates the body and slows breathing and heart rate.

Substances/Time Detectable:
Gamma hydroxybutyrate
 
Urine: up to 72 hours
 
Dangers:
Bradycardia, respiratory depression, hallucinations, amnesia.

ROHYPNOL:
Rophies, Roofies, Roach, Rope, Circles, Mexican Valium
 
What to Look For:
Odorless, tasteless, white tablet
 
Physical Symptoms:
The drug produces sedative effects, including amnesia, muscle relaxation and the slowing of psychomotor performance.

Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Flunitrazepam metabolite (7-Aminoflunitrazepam)
 
Urine: 1 to 3 days
 
Dangers:
Respiratory depression, hypotension, disorientation, dizziness, visual disturbances, anterograde amnesia.

KETAMINE:
Special K, Lady Kay, Vitamin K, Jet, K, Keets, Super C, Cat Valium, K-Hole
 
What to Look For:
Liquid or white powder.
 
Physical Symptoms:
It is a dissassociative drug that produces effects similar to PCP; large doses put users into a dreamlike, hallucinogenic state.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
Ketamine metabolite (dehydronorketamine)
 
Urine: 1 to 2 days
 
Dangers:
Tachycardia, hypertension, nystagmus, respiratory depression, visual hallucinations, cataleptic state.

LSD:
Acid, L, Blotter, Trips, Cid, Tabs, Microdots
 
What to Look For:
Colorless, odorless tablets or capsules (microdots), liquid solution on gelatin (window panes), liquid solution diluted and impregnated on blotting paper (blotter)
 
Physical Symptoms:
Mood-altering effects, flashbacks, severe depression.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Lysergic acid diethylamide
 
Urine: 8 hours
 
Dangers:
Tachycardia, hypertension, hyperthermia, mydriasis, lacrimation, visual hallucinations, synthesias ataxia tremors.

ANABOLIC STEROIDS:
Testosterone and its, Synthetic Analogs, Listed as Controlled Substances, Androstendols, Androstendiones, Their 19-nor versions, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Designer anabolic steroids
 
What to Look For:
Oil based injectable IM solutions (ampoules, vials, syringes, bottles), tablets or lozenges for oral administration, sprays, skin lotions.
 
Physical Symptoms:
Yellow tint skin color, acne, gynecomastia, gain in weight, accumulation of fluids, psycholgical disorders such as aggressiveness.
 
In females: marked masculinization, deeper voice, male-pattern hair growth.
 
Substances/Time Detectable:
 
Multiple metabolites, some parent steroids. Testosterone to epitestosterone ratio (T/E) for detection of endogenous steroids abuse
 
Urine: if drug taken orally, up to 3 weeks
Urine: if drug injected, 3 months up to 1 year
 
Dangers:
Liver dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, infertility.